The workshop acknowledged The vast amount of social and behavioral information potentially available on the Internet has made it a prime target for researchers wishing to study the dynamics of human interactions and their consequences in this virtual medium.
Nearly all online companies and platforms analyze data and test theories that often rely on data from individual users.
This uncertainty in the intent and expectations of users of social media and internet-based platforms — often fueled by the design of the platforms themselves — create numerous conceptual muddles in our ability to properly alleviate potential privacy concerns in big data research.
In contrast to generic hyperlinking, in the case of framing, the user remains at the framing site and views content from both sites. Except in cases where they are partnering with academic institutions, companies typically do not put internal research activities through a formal ethical review process, since results are typically never shared publicly and the perceived impact on users is minimal.
However, many cases that involve framing are likely to implicate trademark concerns. By the mid s, Legal issues of using internet for three major anthologies published, and a growing literature base, there was ample scholarly literature documenting IRE across disciplines and methodologies, and subsequently, there was anecdotal data emerging from the review boards evaluating such research.
For example, technology that allows framing of other sites Legal issues of using internet for a relatively recent innovation, lacking any established netiquette to provide some insight in conducting the legal analysis. It could be been meant to be visible to only a small circle of friends, but the user failed to completely understand how to adjust the privacy settings accordingly.
Third, the Internet plays an important role for consumer health education, health promotion and teleprevention. The question for the law is whether those customs should constitute the legal rule in a commercial environment. In a world like the Internet that is characterized by relatively low costs, this latter element may be quite difficult to prove.
Hudson and Bruckmanhighlighted the unique challenges in gaining consent in chat rooms, while Lawson offers an array of consent possibilities for synchronous computer-mediated communication. Microsoft's bypassing of the home page threatened the ability of Ticketmaster to comply with that agreement.
A flurry of Internet research, and explicit concern for the ethical issues concurrently at play in it, began in the mid s. Identity in the Age of the Internet called direct attention to the human element of online game environments. Finally, at the end of a successful research project utilizing crowdsourcing, a researcher may be confronted with the ethical challenge of how to properly acknowledge the contributions made by typically anonymous laborers.
The user actually does the framing and the user's conduct is likely to be protected under the copyright doctrine of fair use. If documentation of consent is required, some researchers have utilized alternatives such as electronic signatures, which can range from a simple electronic check box to acknowledge acceptance of the terms to more robust means of validation using encrypted digital signatures, although the validity of electronic signatures vary by jurisdiction.
If misappropriation claims are unsuccessful under a Second Circuit view of the world, plaintiffs might try to use a cause of action like trespass to limit unauthorized access.
The second challenge to the law lacks a similar frame of reference to netiquette. Trademark law, however, may place limits on linking.
In addition, as more federal agencies and funding bodies across the globe mandate making research data publicly-available i. There is also a need to consider whether seeking parental consent would make things worse e. These unique characteristics implicate concepts and practicalities of privacy, consent, ownership, jurisdictional boundaries, and recruitment measures.
The Notice of Proposed Rule Making includes revisions to categories of research, consent, and data security, among other changes that affect research in the social-behavioral-educational and biomedical realms.
Similarly, few regulatory bodies in other countries have changed or redefined their regulations because of, or in light of, Internet research.
New forms of representations are considered human subjects if PII about living individuals is obtained.
On a larger scale, the use of technology by some governments to infringe on the privacy rights of their citizens is a troubling legal and ethical issue being dealt with in the legal systems of many countries. Ethical research requires the fair and accurate description of authorship.
Models of informed consent for traditional international research are fundamentally challenging due to cultural specificity and norms Annas ; Boga et al. However, these do not protect against release of data outside of the U. Another example of disciplinary differences comes from the Oral History Association, which acknowledged the growing use of the Internet as a site for research: Buchanan has conceptualized three phases or stages of Internet research, and the emergence of social media characterize the second phase, circa Should there have been a debriefing after the experiment?
Thus, the question of the relationship between the public and private law is likely to play an important role in deciding the shape of the Internet, regardless of whether the particular conduct involved is hyperlinking, framing, or some technology not yet developed.
Multiple confirmation points asking for age, later asking for year of birth, etc are practical measures for researchers. Department of Health and Human Services put forth a set of basic regulations governing the protection of human subjects 45 C.
Neither is clearly illegal under existing legal doctrine, nor is it clear that either should be. Also, Ticketmaster had set up contractual arrangements with other firms in which those companies had agreed to pay to link to the Ticketmaster site.
For example, researchers in computer security are actively examining the tenets of research ethics in CS and ICT Aycock et al. Many areas of Internet law remain unsettled, which in some instances makes it difficult to develop clear, unambiguous statements about what constitutes lawful behavior or breaches of lawful behavior online.
Should industry-sponsored research undergo internal ethics review?There is little research that is not impacted in some way on or through the Internet.
The Internet, as a field, a tool, and a venue, has specific and far reaching ethical issues. As systems of systems are linked together by sensors, we are faced with a new set of ethical and legal questions.
Prescribing and Dispensing Medications Using the Internet Mayo Clin Proc, FebruaryVol 79 about the adverse effects of medications may encourage patients to question pharmacists. 47 In addition, the cloak of anonymity that the Internet offers may encourage patients.
Transcript of Moral, social and ethical issues associated with the Internet by Alyssa Alias & Eddiechewy Moral, social and ethical issues associated with the Internet The use of the internet by individuals and organisations has raised a number of issues that need to be considered.
Reviewing the regulations and laws that govern Internet pharmacy activities also introduces clinicians to the legal issues surrounding the prescribing and dispensing of prescription medications in general.
Function. Some employers monitor Internet use in the workplace to protect their companies from legal problems that could arise if employees use company computers for inappropriate or illegal.Download